In Mozart's time, the last movement was sometimes performed on pianos built with a " Turkish stop ", allowing it to be embellished with extra percussion effects.
The theme of the first movement was used by Max Reger in his Variations and Fugue on a Theme by Mozart for orchestra. Until then, only the last page of the autograph had been known to have survived. The paper and handwriting of the four pages matched that of the final page of the score, held in Salzburg. The original score is close to the first edition, published in In the first movement, however, in bars 5 and 6 of Variation V, the rhythm of the final eight note of the bar was altered by various editions throughout time.
In the menuetto, the last quarter beat of bar 3 is a C-sharp in most editions, but in the original autograph an A is printed. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Rondo alla Turca Mozart.
Piano sonata. For the general Turkish-inspired trend in European music, see Turkish music style. Andante grazioso Menuetto Alla turca — Allegretto. Variation 2. Variation 3. Variation 4. Variation 5. Variation 6. Alla turca. Understanding Mozart's Piano Sonatas. Andante, tema con variazioni Piano Sonata No. Allegro con spirito 20 II. Andante un poco adagio 21 III. Allegretto grazioso Piano Sonata No. Allegro maestoso 23 II. Andante cantabile con espressione 24 III. Allegro con spirito 26 II, Rondo - Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart / Klára Würtz - Piano Sonatas Vol.
5 (CD). Andante con espressione 27 III. Allegro moderato 29 II. Andante cantabile 30 III. Allegretto Piano Sonata No. Andante grazioso 32 II. Menuetto 33 III. Alla Turca. Allegro 35 II. Adagio 36 III. Allegro Rondo - Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart / Klára Würtz - Piano Sonatas Vol. 5 (CD) Piano Sonata No. Allegro 38 II. The rise in interest in " authentic performance " issues in the last few decades has, however, led to a revival of the fortepiano, and several recordings now exist with an approximate reconstruction of the sound Mozart might have himself expected.
It seems likely, although it is not absolutely certain, that the piano would have retained its ancient keyboard basso continuo role in the orchestral tuttis of the concertos, and possibly in other places as well. That this was Mozart's intention is implied by several lines of evidence. Second, he wrote "CoB" col Basso — with the basses in the lower stave of the piano part during tuttisimplying that the left hand should reproduce the bass part.
Sometimes, this bass was figured too, for example in the early edition of Nos. On the other hand, this view is not entirely accepted. Charles Rosenfor example, has the view that the essential feature of the piano concerto is the contrast between the solo, accompanied, and tutti sections; and this psychological drama would have been ruined if the piano was effectively playing the whole time, albeit discreetly.
In support of his case, Rosen argued that the published figured bass of No. Conversely, other scholars, notably Robert Levin have argued that real performance practice by Mozart and his contemporaries would have been considerably more embellished than even the chords suggested by the figuration.
A place where the addition of the piano to the orchestra is particularly common is in the last bars after the cadenzawhere the orchestra in score plays to the end on its own except in No.
As far as modern practice goes, the matter is complicated by the very different instrumentation of today. The early fortepianos produced a more "orchestral" sound that blended easily into the orchestral background, so that discreet continuo playing could have the effect of strengthening the sonic output of the orchestra without in effect destroying the ritornello structure that is the basis for the Mozart piano concerto. Furthermore, when the soloist is directing the orchestra as well, as Mozart would have been, the addition of continuo would help keep the band together.
Finally, the vast majority of performances of Mozart piano concertos heard today are recorded rather than live, with the net effect of flattering the piano's sound i.
Nevertheless, continuo playing has discreetly appeared in some modern recordings of the fortepiano with success, or at least, lack of intrusion see discography, below. However, against this must be set the fact that Mozart's own cadenzas are preserved for the majority of the concertos, and may have existed for others e.
On the other hand, the cadenzas were not supplied as part of the concerto to the publishers, and it would no doubt have been expected that other pianists would supply their own. As might be expected, opinion is sharply divided, with some commentators notably Hutchings strongly urging the use of Mozart's own cadenzas when available, and when they are not available, for cadenzas to be similar to Mozart's, especially as far as length goes i.
The sorts of problems that exist are exemplified by the cadenzas written by the young Beethoven for No. Perhaps the most controversial aspect of the concertos is the extent to which Mozart or other contemporary performers would have embellished the piano part as written in the score. Mozart's own ability to improvise was famous, and he often played from very sketchy piano parts. Manuscript evidence exists to suggest that embellishment did occur e. Inevidence was published from two brothers, Philipp Karl and Heinrich Anton Hoffmann, who had heard Mozart perform two concertos, Nos 19 and 26 K.
Philip Karl reported that Mozart embellished his slow movements "tenderly and tastefully once one way, once another according to the momentary inspiration of his genius", [ citation needed ] and he later published embellished Mozart slow movements to six of his later concertos K. Mozart himself wrote to his sister in agreeing with her that something was missing in the slow movement of K. Peters Archabbey, Salzburg see location of autographs below ; presumably the part he sent her. In all of these works, Rondo - Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart / Klára Würtz - Piano Sonatas Vol.
5 (CD) embellishments appear in the first editions published under Mozart's guidance, with the suggestion that they represent examples of embellishments for lesser pianists than himself to follow. However, to many admirers of the concertos, it is exactly these sparse points that are so beautiful, and the establishment of the autographs as the texts for the concertos has made many pianists reluctant to depart from them.
Nevertheless, the existence of these Mozartian additions and of several other embellished versions published early in the 19th century suggests that the expectation would be that especially slow movements would be embellished according to the taste or skill of the performer, and thus that the versions most commonly-heard today would not reflect how the original listeners in general experienced these works. Among all concertos, only two, No.
The concertos in major keys were undervalued in the 19th century. Clara Schumann 's concert repertoire contained only the D minor, the C minor, and No. He writes that "overtly dark, dramatic and impassioned", it was an antecedent of Beethoven and "appealed directly to the romanticized taste of the 19th century.
The D-minor concerto has remained highly appreciated, but it now shares honors with many other of the concertos.
Mozart's development of the piano concerto created a complex form that was arguably never surpassed. Of the later composers especially after Beethoven, who noted Mozartian procedureonly Brahms paid attention to his classicism as expressed in the formal structure of these works. Their value as music and popularity does not, naturally enough, rest upon their formal structure though but on the musical content. Mozart's piano concertos are filled with assured transition passages, modulationsdissonancesNeapolitan relationships and suspensions.
This technical skill, combined with a complete command of his admittedly rather limited orchestral resources, in particular of the woodwinds in the later concertos, allowed him to create a variety of moods at will, from the comic operatic nature of the end of K. In particular, these major works of Mozart could hardly fail to be influenced by his own first love, i.
Mozart clearly valued the concertos, some of which he guarded carefully. For example, No. The qualities of the piano concertos have become more fully appreciated in the last 50 years or so. The list of notable names that have contributed cadenzas to the concertos e. Beethoven was clearly impressed by them: even if the anecdotal story about his comments to Ferdinand Ries about No. Despite their renown, the Mozart piano concertos are not without some detractors.
Even amongst his mature examples, there are examples of movements that can be argued to fall short of his normally high standards. This is particularly true for some of the last movements, which can appear too light to balance the first two movements — an example being the last movement of No.
Girdlestone considered that even popular movements such as the last movement to No. Similarly, a few of the slow movements have sometimes been considered repetitive e. Today, at least three of these works Nos. The first four concertos are only orchestrations of works by other composers; Gutmann calls these " juvenilia. With these exceptions, Gutmann writes of Mozart that "all of his mature concertos have been acclaimed as masterpieces". The discography for Mozart's piano concertos is massive.
In recent years, a number of more or less complete sets of the Rondo - Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart / Klára Würtz - Piano Sonatas Vol. 5 (CD) have been released; these include:. Mozart's piano concertos have also featured in the soundtracks to several films; again, the slow movement to No. Its extensive use in the film Elvira Madigan about a doomed love story between a Danish tightrope walker and a Swedish officer has led to the concerto often being referred to as "Elvira Madigan" even today, when the film itself is largely forgotten.
A partial list Rondo - Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart / Klára Würtz - Piano Sonatas Vol. 5 (CD) the concertos in recent films includes:. Other autographs owned by Otto Jahn had been acquired in Grassnick in Berlin and No.
Heinemann in Brussels ; a few others were scattered around other museums. In the last 50 years, however, all of the extant autographs have made their way into libraries. The entire Prussian State collection of autographs was evacuated during World War II to the eastern front, where they disappeared and were feared lost until the s. In addition, various copies used by Mozart and his family have come to light. The list of locations of the autographs given by Cliff Eisen  in is:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Redirected from Mozart piano concerti. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. On the authenticity of K Anh. Archived from the original on Retrieved CS1 maint: archived copy as title linkand for a discussion of the incomplete concerto including why it was not completed, see "Archived copy".
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