Aoi Hana add. Barakamon add. Black Jack TV add. Detective Conan add Airing. Diabolus: Kikoku add. Digimon Savers add. Dragonaut: The Resonance add. Fairy Tail add. Fairy Tail Movie 1: Houou no Miko add.
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Sola add. Sola Specials add. To Heart 2 AD add. To Heart 2 AD Plus add. Unstow, First person to relieue himself on the moon After landing o n the Moon o n 2 0 J u lyApollo 7 7 crew Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin descended the ladder on to the lunar surface. While still on the ladder, Aldrin urinated into a special collection bag within his spacesuit.
Believed to be the latest in the series of M e ntor-class satellites, NROL was clai med to be the largest ever put into space by the D i rector of the National Reco nnaissance Office, the US body responsible for spy satellites. Although details of both the satellite and its m ission are secret, some experts believe NROL has a main antenna larger than m ft across.
Cosmonauts would use the weapon, which weighed 2. The rocket was 14 m 45 ft 11 in long and weighed 12, kg 27, lbwith an operational range of km miles. The first successful firing of the V2 - on 3 October 1 from PeenemUnde on Germany's Baltic coast - was the first time any man-made object entered space.
One of the best known is Rigel in the constellation of Orion. It is the sixth brightest star in the sky despite being around light years away.
Shortest-lived stars the overall expansion universe, a small number of galaxies are-a pproaching our own. Fastest star in the galaxy On 8 Februarya team of astronomers from the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, announced their discovery of a star travelling a t more than 2. Less than 0. With masses of around times that of the Sun, they burn through their fuel very quickly and can last as little as 10 million years.
Their blue colour is Smallest stars Neutron stars may have a mass around 1. Fastest spinning star VFTS 1 02 is a star approximately 25 times more massive than the Sun andtimes more luminous. If it rotated any faster, it would be in danger of tearing itself apart with centrifugal forces.
Flattest star The least spherical star studied to date in our galaxy is the southern star Achenar Alpha Eridani. With a mass around 4 m illion times greater than our Sun, this black hole is orbited by several massive stars. First prouen col lision of w hite d warf stars S N R In Januaryastronomers studying the remnant proved that the supernova was caused by two white dwarf stars colliding.
The remnant is aroundlight years away. The Sun is around 30, light years from its centre, located on one of the "arms" of the spiral: KEY 3. Bulge 1. Disk 2. Nucleus 4. Sun 20, astronomical units, or around 30 trillion km This is around times greater than our heliosphere the distance from our sun to the point at which its gravitational force fades.
Most distant dwarf galaxy On 18 Januaryastronomers using the Keck II telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, USA, announced that they had discovered a dwarf galaxy orbiting a large elliptical galaxy 10 billion light years away. It was found using a method called gravitational lensing, in which the mass of a foreground galaxy distorts and magnifies light from a much more distant galaxy behind it.
QJ rt! Hidden by forest, it was found in 1 by a local farmer named Ho Khan h. In Aprilhe led a team of British cavers to the cave, and they made an initia l survey of it. S'C in the last years. This has an effect on the size of the planet's ice caps. As ice is white, it reflects more solar radiation! As the ice caps shrink, they reflect less and a llow more solar radiation to be absorbed, meaning it can contribute to further warming.
This is known as "positive feedback". Antarctica is a land mass covered by a vast ice cap, but the Arctic is an ocean on which the ice floats. The ice grows and shrinks with the seasons, and in the su mmer of the Arctic experienced the greatest shrinkage in the ice cap, red ucing i n size to an area of 4. I n the summer ofit shrank to 4. Hockey stick g raph Published by the U N 's Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change inthis graph is one of the most controversial in science.
It uses scientific data including tree-ring studies, ice cores, historical records, and coral and instrument data to show an overall rise in Earth's atmospheric temperature after The graph's name comes from the shape of the line. Why not? Because the ice is already floating on the ocean. But massive changes to Antarctica could change sea levels considerably. There is enough ice in Antarctica to raise the level of the oceans by around 61 m ftand the Greenland ice cap contains enough water to cause a 7-m ft rise.
A recent report predicts a rise of 1. This could have devastating results for coastal cities. The oceans are a natural "sink" for atmospheric carbon dioxide CO - they absorb around 22 million tonnes of C02 every day. C02 in the atmosphere comes from various natural sources ' including volcanic activity and the respiration of animals, as well as human activity. The concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere has increased since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution c. A pH value of 7 is neutral.
Between andthe average pH of the oceans' surface water has decreased from around 8. Ttle current rate of change of ocean acidity is around times greater than at any time in the last 20 million years. If the overall acidity of the oceans continues to rise, there will be various effects.
C02 is a natural component of the atmosphere. It only accounts for a small part of it but it has a significant effect on Earth's ability to trap in heat from the Sun. Most sources of C02 are natural but the study of air bubbles trapped in Antarctic ice cores shows a steady increase sincecorresponding to the increase in man-made emissions since the start of the Industrial Revolution. Exactly how much human activity has contributed to this remains unknown.
From the s tothe atmospheric concentration of C02 has increased in volume from around 31 5 to After water vapour, C02 is the most abundant "greenhouse gas" in our atmosphere. If C02 levels in the atmosphere keep on rising, it will lead to an increase in Earth's natural greenhouse effect which, in turn, will make the planet warmer.
A hotter atmosphere is expected to lead to not only sea-level rise but also a more energetic climate in general, with more tropical cyclones, droughts, flooding and heatwaves. At ha 2, acresit is three times bigger than Central Park - and, in places, it is 68 m ft high, taller than the Statue of Li berty.
In Octoberwork began on a year project to turn it i nto a public park. First g lobal light pol lution map Light pollution i n urban areas drowns out much of the natural night sky. I n addition to representing energy waste, it can lead to confusion in nocturnal species. InItalia n and American astronomers released the first global map highlighting the problem. The Falkland Islands at the foot of South America have a surprising amount of light pollution because of light from fishing fleets and the gas flares on offshore oil and gas rigs.
Key issue: Pesticide pollution considering only local impact Key issue: Lead pollution At risk: 1, Key issue: Chromium pollution At risk: 1, Key issue: Mercury pollution At risk: 1, Key issue: Lead pollution At risk: 1 , largest e-waste site Guiyu, a group of villages in Guangdong province, China, is the world capital of electronic waste.
Around 1. As a result, the a rea has high levels of heavy metal and acid pollution. Key issue: Lead pollution At risk:First commercial nuclear power station First floati ng nuclear power station Calder Hall, in Cumbria, UK, was the first nuclear power station to provide electricity commercially. Its four Magnox reactors were each capable of producing 60 MWe megawatts. Its initial purpose was to produce weaponsgrade plutonium; electricity generation was a by-product.
It was decommissioned in M H -1A, a pressurized-water reactor, was built inside a converted cargo ship for the US Army, and began operation in The ship, whose engines had been removed to make way for the reactor, was towed to the Panama Canal, where it provided electrical power to the Panama Canal Zone between and It was capable of providing 10 MWe of power.
There are 58 reactors in the country, with a total generating power of 63 GWe gigawatts. Longest-operating nuclear power station The nuclear reactor in Obninsk, Russia, ran from 27 J une until it was decommissioned on 30 April It was the world's first operating civilian nuclear reactor. Obninsk is known as Russia's first science city, or naukograd. ATLAS is being used to investigate the forces that have shaped the u niverse since the start of time, including the way particles gain mass, the differences between matter and antimatter, and the possibility of extra dimensions in space.
I n response, t h e US government i nitiated t h e irradiation of mail sent to key addreSses. Between November and Aprilaround 1. All mail addressed to the White House is still reportedly irradiated. First commercial food irradiation Largest nuclear reactor building programme I na facility in Stuttgart, then West Germany, began irradiating spices with a n electron beam t o increase their storage life.
The Chinese government suspended approval for further facilities after an earthquake and tsunami wrecked the nuclear plant at Fukushi ma, Japan, in March Designed to test remotely operated nuclear reactors, SNAP lOA began producing electricity at more than W some 12 hours after launch.
After 43 days of operation, the reactor shut down because of an electrical component failure. The spacecraft is still in orbit, about 1, km miles above Earth, and is not expected to re-enter the atmosphere for around 4, years.
Its solution was a chain of lighthouses powered by radioisotope thermal generators, which are more like "nuclear batteries" than reactors. These generators allowed isolated lighthouses to operate without supervision.
The network of around nuclear lighthouses began to fail after the fall of the USSR and some have been plundered by thieves for their metals. Smallest nuclear-powered attack submarine France currently operates six Rubis-class submarines, each of which has a length of Powered by a pressurized -water n uclear reactor, they have u n li m ited range and were designed to have an operational lifetime of around 25 years.
On 22 Decemberthe French government placed an order for six Barracuda submarines, which are expected to start replacing the Rubis subs by The Barracudas will be There are more than pressurized-water reactors worldwide. With a KLT p ressurized-water reactor, rated at MWt, she is the most powerful of o n ly four nuclear cargo ships ever built and the last in operation.
Strongest force The four fundamental forces in the universe which account for all inte ractions between matter and energy are: the strong nuclear which holds nuclei togetherthe weak nuclear responsible for radioactive decayelectromagnetic and gravity. The strongest of these is the strong nuclear force, which is times stronger than the electromagnetic force - the next strongest. Gravity, the weakest, is times weaker than the electromagnetic force.
The nucleus of an atom is held together by strong forces, which means that the atom contains a huge amount of energy. Harnessing this energy means tapping into a source of power more than a million times more efficient than burning coal.
There are two fundamental ways of releasing this energy: fission and fusion. Fission Occurrence: Very rare in nature. Waste products: Many types of la rgest radioactiue excl usion zone The accident a t the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine on 26 April l resulted i n a permanent exclusion zone roughly 30 km 19 miles around the power plant.
No one is officially allowed to live i nside this zone, although some people are believed to have returned illegally. Energy released: Around a million times the energy released by chemical reactions.
Requirements: Critical mass of the fissile material plus high-speed neutrons. Use history: Chicago Pile 1 was first tested in Commercial power supply from fission began in Occurrence: Stars are powered by natural fusion reactions in their cores, where hydrogen is fused into helium and, later in a star's life, to heavier elements.
Waste products: None, apart from when a "fission trigger" is used. Energy released: Between three and four times the energy released in fission. Requirements: Very high temperatures and densities.
Use history: First lab demonstration in Longest sustained man-made fusion reaction stands at seconds. No commercial use yet. Smallest ecosystem Youngest biome Arctic tundra, which encircles the North Pole along the northern coastlines of Russia and Canada, as well as parts of Greenland, was formed only 10, years ago. It is treeless, windy and receives only around em in of precipitation annually - mostly as snow. The 48 animal species fou nd there include bears, polar bears, wolves, rodents, foxes and reindeer.
Geographical area with greatest biodiversity Fastest-declining biome The tropical Andes region covers 12 58, km2miles2 and runs through Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Chile and a small area in north Argentina. Tropical rainforests are being lost at a higher rate than any other biome. A study using satellite images revealed that around 58, km2 22, miles2 a year were lost between and Between andCentral America lost around 1.
Deepest hydrothermal uent In Octoberscientists discovered the first ecosystem on Earth with only one species. The bacteria Desulforudis audaxviator was found 2. Highest concentration of heathers The fynbos Afrikaans for "fine bush" plant ecosystem, exclusive to South Africa's Cape floristic region, has more than species of heather Erica. Only 26 species of heather occur in the rest of the world.
Globally, its volume is around 1million km3 million miles3. This biome contains many of the largest animals on Earth, i ncluding the largest, the blue whale belowas well as bluefin tuna and g iant squid.
Tropical rainforest an average of em in of rainfall annually. The Amazon rainforest covers an area of 5. The second largest contiguous rainforest is in the Congo Basin, Africa. They begin at an altitude of around 3, m 10, ft and continue up to the snowline. Alpine animals cope with the cold by hibernating, migrating or growing layers of insulating fat.
There is no international agreement on how biomes should be organized, and there are many d ifferent lists; here is one such grouping by the University of California, Berkeley, USA. Even In summer, lots of sun penetrates the canopy so forest-floor plants can photosynthesize and cold-blooded animals such as snakes and frogs can survive. As vegetation is dense, mue Ught reaches the forest floor. Many vines and epiphytes plants which perch on other plants cling to the branches.
Marine reserve The Papahanaumoku akea Marine National Monument coverskm2miles2 of the Pacific Ocean surrounding the northwestern Hawaiian islands and atolls. The coral reefs here are home to more than 7, species, a quarter of which are unique to the region.
Coastal mangrove forest Tropical forest reserve The largest tropical forest reserve is the Tumucumaque National Park i n the northern Amazonian state of Amapa, Brazil. Measuring some 38, km2 15, miles2 in area, the reserve contains sloths, jaguars, freshwater turtles, eagles and agouti a species of rodent. The creation of the park was announced on 22 August by Brazilian president Fernando H e n rique Cardoso. It acts as a natural barrier against tsunamis and cyclones that blow in from the Bay of Bengal.
Deepest cold seep trench Oldest terrestrial biome Tropical rainforests, such as the Amazon rainforest abovehave been established for at least a million years. The last Ice Age, which ended around 10, years ago, covered much of the world's forests i n ice, but left the equatorial forests uncovered. Marine animal structure Unbroken intertidal mudflats The Great Barrier Reef, off Queensland, Australia, covers an area ofkm2 80, miles2 and consists of billions of living and dead stony corals order Madreporaria or Scleractinia.
Over species of coral are c urrently found there, and it is estimated to have formed over million years. Stretching along some km miles off the northern European coastline from the Netherlands to Denmark lies the Wadden Sea. Its total area of around 10, km2 3, miles2 contains many habitats, including tidal channels, sea-grass meadows, Tsuzuku (2006) - Ono Ryoko* - Solo And Duo (2004-2007) (CDr), sandbars, mussel beds and salt marshes.
Some million migratory birds pass through each year, with u p to 6. The climate has a major impact on biomes. Temperature and moisture play a key role in the terrestrial land biomes, while the aquatic biomes are determined by the availability of sunlight and nutrients. Data from the UN Food and Agriculture Organization shows that between anddeforestation across tropical countries averaged a total of 9, ha 23, acres per year.
At current rates, more than half of it will be lost by First tree The earliest surviving species of tree is the maidenhair Ginkgo biloba of Zhejiang, which first appeared in China about million years ago d u ring the J urassic era.
It was rediscovered by Engelbert Kaempfer Germany in It has been g rown in Japan since c. Longest-living forests The forests of Patagonian cypresses Fitzroya cupressoides in the Andean mountains of southern Chile and Argentina have an average age of 2, years. Largest tree transplanted An oak tree Quercus Iobato named "Old G lory", aged years and weighing approximately The tree was Most dangerous tree Most expensive tree The trunk of the manchineel Hippomane mancinellanative to the Florida Everglades, USA, and Caribbean coast, exudes a sap so acidic that the merest contact with human skin causes a breakout of blisters, and blindness can occur if it touches a person's eyes.
In addition, a single bite of its small, green, apple-like fruit causes blistering and severe pain, and can prove fatal.
And if the tree catches fire, its smoke can cause blindness. Most parasitic tree The world's loneliest tree is believed to be a solitary Norwegian spruce Picea abies - over years old located on Campbell Island in Antarctica, whose nearest companion is over km Unlike normal plants, the albino coastal redwoods Sequoia sempervirens lack chlorophyll and therefore are unable to feed themselves via photosynthesis.
Instead, they permanently attach themselves to the roots of "parent" trees, from which they draw all of their sustenance. The trees are white with th in, limp, waxy needles, hence their nicknames "vampire redwoods" and "everwhites". Only between 25 and 60 exist, all in California, USA. Most trees destroyed by storms Approximately m illion trees were felled or split by storms that hit France on 26 and 27 December Remotest tree Highest tree nest: Nests of the marbled mu rrelet Brachyramphus marmoratusa small north Pacific member of the auk family of seabirds, have been discovered as high as 45 m ftusua lly on moss-covered branches of old conifer trees.
Highest ring count Fastest-growing tree The highest ring count ever found on a tree is 4, and belonged to a bristlecone pine Pinus longaeva known as " Prometheus", which was cut down in on Mount Wheeler, Nevada, USA. The empress or foxglove tree Paulownia tomentosa can grow 6 m 20 ft in it s first year. Native to central and western China, but naturalized now in the USA, this large species has purple foxglove- like flowers and produces times more oxygen during photosynthesis than any other species of tree.
A silver fi r Abies squamata was found in southwestern China at this height. Himalayan birch trees Betula utilis have also been discovered near this altitude. These include the tamarack larch L.
It averaged a g rowth rate of 0. Tallest trees Redwoods, a type o f softwood tree, and eucalyptuses, often called g u m trees, are the world's tallest tree species. This redwood from Prai rie Creek Redwoods State Park i n California, USA, w a s photographed with a camera suspended from the upper branches of the forest canopy so it could shoot the tru nk all the way up from about 1 5.
A total of 84 photos were montaged together to create this image. This redwood is The tree is harvested every nine years by cutting the bark away with axes. The last harvest in produced kg 1lb of raw cork - enough forbottles of wine. The average tree produces enough cork for 40, bottles. When measured on 12 Octoberthis outsize serpent was 7. She eats live animals, ranging from rats right up to deer.
And though she doesn't bite, she can "butt" people and bring them down. Medusa is the star attraction at Kansas City's The Edge of Hell Haunted House - some of whose grisly denizens are lending a helping hand here. Is there a size limit to animal life? Despite their epic size, dinosaurs were not the largest creatures to have ever lived.
We don't need to look i nto prehistory to find this a bsolute record holder: we cu rrently share our planet with the. But d oes the blue whale represent the a bsolute in animal size? What a bout terrestrial creatures, or bird s? Size comparison H e re we see the relative sizes of the m i g htiest creatures o n Earth. Nothing on land has ever exceeded c. Key 1: Blue whale 2: Argentinosaur 3: Paraceratherium 4: Giganotosaur 5 : African elephant 6: Quetzalcoatlus African elephant Loxodonta africana - largest ungulate and largest land mammal: A figure of a bout ton nes is a lso the limit reached theoretically when examining the stress lim its of bones and the corresponding increase in m uscle size - in terrestrial ani mals.
Such a creature is feasible but would be lim ited by gravity, the availability of resources, the tu rnaround of offspring larger ani mals produce fewer babies and a lack of adapta bi lity in times of crisis such as a food shortage.
So if we were going to find an animal bigger than the blue whale, it would have to be in the oceans. Could the mysterious " B loop" see p. American bison Bison bison largest migrant on land: 2 m 6 ft 5 in to shoulder; c. First use of the term "shark" Shark with the most gill slits Sailors originally described sharks as "sea dogs". The first use of the term "shark" occurred when sailors from the second expedition of 16th-century English seaman Sir John Hawkins exhibited a specimen in London in Tsuzuku (2006) - Ono Ryoko* - Solo And Duo (2004-2007) (CDr) referred to it as a "sharke".
This soon became the accepted name for the creature. Most modern-day shark species have five pairs of gill slits. H owever, a few have six pairs, and two - the sharpnose seven gill shark Heptranchias perlo and the broad nose sevengill shark Notorhynchus cepedianus have seven pairs.
These sevengill species are related to some of the most ancient sharks; fossil sharks - from the Jurassic Period, to million years ago, also had seven pairs. Largest shark pups The basking shark Cetorhinus maximus is the world's second largest shark species and it gives birth to the largest pups. A sexually mature female will give birth to one or two live pups at a time, each of which is about 1.
By comparison, the fastest human swims Tsuzuku (2006) - Ono Ryoko* - Solo And Duo (2004-2007) (CDr) only 7. The shortfin mako is also the highest leaping shark. It can jump 6 m 19 ft 8 in out of the water - that's longer than the average school bus. It has even leapt directly into fishermen's boats. Most recently discovered shark family Shark with the most varied diet The newest zoological family of sharks is MegachaSmidae, which for a Nicknamed the "garbagecan shark", the tiger shartc Galeoa!
O topUSes and The largetooth cookiecutter lsistius plutodus measures only 0. They are twice as large, relative to its total body length, as the great white shark's Carcharodon carcharias teeth are in relation to its own total body length.
The shark uses the teeth to gouge flesh from larger fish. Movies such as Jaws USA, 1 - the first blockbuster movie - have unfairly portrayed sharks as ferocious ma eaters, but statistics show you're more li kely to be killed by lightning or a falling coconut than by a shark. However, sharks are apex predators and will attack you if they mistake you for prey.
There are many claims of huge specimens up to 10 m 33 ft long but few have been properly authenticated. However, there is plenty of circumstantial evidence to suggest that some great whites grow to more than 6 m 20 ft long.
It is named after Isis, an Egyptian goddess associated with light. Up to 1. The purpose of this bioluminescence is unclear - it may serve to attract sharks of its own species, or to attract prey, or even as camouflage If viewed from below. This mating call is beyond the hearing threshold of humans. Loudest penis To attract a mate, Micronecta scholtzi - a small water boatman, just 2 mm 0.
The chirping noise that this creates can b e up t o This is equivalent to sitting in the front row listening to a loud orchestra playing. Largest bowers The bowerbirds of Australia and New Guinea construct and decorate elaborate "bowers" to attract females for mating purposes. The largest bowers are those of the Vogelkop gardener bowerbird Amblyornis inornato from New Guinea.
These hut-like structures are some em 5 ft 3 in across and em 3 ft 3 in high, often with a front lawn-like area several square metres in area. The male clears this "lawn" of forest debris and then decorates it with bright, shiny objects such as colourful fruit, flowers and even shiny beetle wing-cases. Most frequent mating Native to the deserts of North Africa, a small gerbil-related rodent species known as Shaw's jird Meriones shawi has been observed mating times in just two hours.
Smallest semelparous mammal The male brown antechinus Antechinus stuartiia marsupial mouse from east Australia, is the world's smallest "semelparous" mammal, meaning that it has just one reproductive period during its entire lifetime. Every year the entire adult male population spends two weeks mating with as many females as possible before dying. Their deaths are believed to result from the stress of chasing females and fighting off rival males, causing their immune system to shut down, and leaving them vulnerable to ulcers, infection or, as they neglect to eat, starvation.
ORGAnS Longest animal penis relative to body size A barnacle's body is just a few centimetres long, but its penis can be as much as 40 times longer. The long penis enables these immobile creatures to mate with other barnacles. In absolute terms, the longest penis belongs to the blue whale at up to 2.
Longest baculum I n many mammals, the penis has a bone called the baculum although not in humans, Smallest placental mammal baby relatiue to adult The giant panda Ailuropoda melanoleuca produces the smallest baby of any placental mammal that is, a mammal other than marsupials or those who lay eggs.
A newborn panda is pink, hairless, blind, about 12 em 5 in long, and weighs about g 3. The walrus Odobenus rosmarus has the longest mammalian baculum; it can measure 75 em Listed here are a selection of litter world records. Largest animal testes The blue whale Balaenoptera musculusthe largest animal on Earth, has testes that can measure in excess of 75 em 2 ft 5. I n whales, the testes are normally internal, and so only visible in dead specimens.
This beaked dinosaur was around 1 m 3 ft 3 in tall, walked on two feet, and lived in Mongolia million years ago, during the Cretaceous Period. One female kiwi weighing 1.
The nest and eggs were frclm a Macroelongatoolithus, a dinosaur that lived in China about million years ago. The mouth-brooding fish Tropheus moorii of Lake Tanganyika in east Africa produces seven eggs or fewer during normal reproduction.
As each egg is released, the female takes it into her mouth, where it is fertilized by the male. Smallest bird egg The smallest egg laid by any bird is that of the vervai n h u m mingbird Mellisuga minima of Jamaica and two nearby islets. Two specimens measuring less than 10 mm 0. Most protective female tortoise The female Burmese brown tortoise Manouria emys remains close to her nesting site, guarding it from potential egg-snatchers, for several days after having laid her eggs.
Other tortoises, conversely, either show no maternal interest in their eggs at all after laying them, or spend no more than an hour or so concealing their eggs and the nesting site. Dogs Most fertile stick insect The world's most fertile stick insect is Acrophylla titan, a species from north Australia that can grow to 30 em 12 in.
A single female can lay more than 2, eggs at a time. It was laid on 3 May by a white goose named Speckle. It measured DNA fingerprinting confirmed that the two babies were identical. Longest-liued armadillo The L a Plata three-banded armadillo Tolypeutes matacus is native to northern Argentina, south-western Brazil, Paraguay and Bolivia. A female specimen of this species was acquired by Lincoln Park Zoo in Chicago, lll Mis, USA, inand died there in aged 36 years 9 months 1 8 days old.
She died on 26 September Chelonian The greatest authentic age recorded for a chelonian tortoise, turtle or terrapin is at least years, for a Madagascar radiated tortoise Astrochelys radiata that was presented to the Tonga royal family by Captain Cook in either or The animal was called Tui Malila and remained in their care until its death in Amphibian I nsect The Artis Zoo i n Amsterdam, Netherlands, owned two giant Japanese salamanders Andrias japonicusboth of whom reached 52 years - the oldest confirmed age for an amphibian.
The first giant Japanese salamander was given to the zoo inwhere it lived until ; the second arrived in and died in It had spent at least 47 years as a larva. How do we know? The staircase had been in Mr Euston's house for the whole of this period, and as the beetle was a tropical species, not native to the UK, it must have already been present in the timber before the Tsuzuku (2006) - Ono Ryoko* - Solo And Duo (2004-2007) (CDr) was installed. Lungfish The longest-lived species of lungfish is the Australian lungfish Neoceratodus forsteri.
Popularly deemed to be more primitive in form than its South American and African relatives, it has lived to 19 years 8 months 12 days in captivity. Marsupial The oldest marsupial whose age has been reliably recorded was a common wombat Vombatus ursinus that was 26 years 22 days old when it died on 20 April 1 at London Zoo. Although not verified, it is possible that the larger species of kangaroo can live u p to 28 years in the wild. Mollusc A quahog clam Arctica islandica that had been living on the seabed off the north coast of Iceland was dredged by researchers from Bangor University's School of Ocean Sciences, UK, in On 28 Octobersclerochronologists experts who examine growth patterns in algae and invertebrates from Bangor University announced that they had studied the annual growth.
It was nicknamed "Ming" after the Chinese dynasty that had been in power when the clam was born. The longest-lived species of freshwater bivalve mollusc is the freshwater pearl mussel Margaritifera margaritifera. InRussian malacologist Dr Valeriy Zyuganov determined the maximum lifespan of this endangered Holarctic species to be years, a remarkable discovery verified independently in by a team of malacological researchers in Finland. Sponge The longest-lived species of sponge is Scolymastra joubini, the Antarctic hexactinellid o r glass sponge.
It grows extremely slowly in this region's exceedingly cold waters, and an estimate of age for one 2-m -tall 6-ft 6-in specimen i n the Ross Sea gave a result of 23, years. Admittedly, this sea's fluctuating levels suggests that it could not survive there for more than around 15, years.
Wild bird The oldest recorded age for a bird in the wild is 50 years for a Manx shearwater Puffinus puffinusa small seabird. It was first ringed in when it was five years old and then again inand finally in Longest-liued auk The common European guillemot or murre Uria aalge is a puffin-related species of auk.
Based on records obtained from ringed specimens, it can live to 38 years in the wild. The guillemot returns to land to breed, but otherwise passes most of its life at sea. As soon as these sources dry up, however, the fishes d ie, but the eggs that they have laid in the meantime survive in the mud. When the rain returns and fills the pool, the eggs hatch, the fishes rapidly grow to their full size, then spawn, before their temporary homes dry out again.
Jackal Wild buffalo The longest-lived species of wild buffalo is the anoa or dwarf buffalo Bubalus depressicomis of Celebes, Indonesia. The world's second smallest buffalo species, it has been recorded as living to 36 years 1 month 6 days in captivity.
These small fishes thrive in temporary water Based upon maximum recorded longevity, the shortest-lived species of jackal is the African side-striped jackal Canis adustus. Its maximum recorded longevity is 13 years 8 months 12 days, in comparison with 18 years 9 months 18 days for the golden jackal C. Vertebrate The animal with the shortest lifespan of all vertebrates is the coral-reef pygmy go by Eviota sigillatawhich has been recorded as researchers at James Cook University were able to establish their age by studying the ear stones of pygmy gobies, which collect daily growth rings.
You've read about the longest-lived species, but here are some OAPs old-aged pets and other individual animals who have also made it into Guinness World Records:Zebra Based on maxim u m recorded longevity, the shortest-lived species of zebra is also the largest species - G revy's zebra Equus grevyi. The maxim u m recorded longevity for this species is 31 years, compared with 33 years 2 months 12 days for the mountain zebra f. Some lizards can squirt blood 1. With a height exceeding 2.
The horn, believed to largest amphipod crustacea n Amphipods are a large zoological order of superficially shrimp-like crustaceans with thin bodies. Most amphipods are very small, no more than a couple of centimetres long. However, the world's largest species of amphipod is Alicella gigantea - one specimen has been measured at 34 em 1 ft 1 in long.
A slender cm-long in pike-like species, it has a second, small pair of eyes - known as secondary globes - positioned, pointing downwards, within the lower half of its principal eyes. Each secondary globe possesses its own lens and retina, and may help to increase the spookfish's sensitivity to light in its shadowy surroundings.
Moreover, located behind the secondary globes is a third pair of eyes, which lack retinas but divert incoming light into the fish's large principal eyes. Only one previous purple cow is known - she was discovered in Florida in Largest item of clothi ng woven from spider silk Most cannibalistic amphibian Several amphibian species eat others of their own species, but the world's most cannibalistic amphibian is the alpine salamander Salamandra atranative to Europe's alpine regions.
The female of this species carries up to 60 fertilized eggs in her body, but most of them are eaten by the first few salamander embryos that hatch inside her, so that only between one and four young are actually born. Most colourful cattle It was announced on 17 January that a male calf, lilac and white in colour, was born in Jezdina village near the city of l: acak in Serbia. Its owner is considering naming it Milkan, after the purple cow emblem of Mllka chocolate. Inafter eight years' work, 80 workers completed weaving a wide, full-length lady's cape with matching 4-m-long ft l -in brocade scarf.
Each day, the workers collected thousands of spiders from their webs in the wild and then used hand-powered machines to extract the silk from their spinnerets, after which the spiders were released unharmed. The cape alone contains 1. Most clothing used in a bird's nest Ina kg 1,lb nest of a white stork Ciconia ciconia was removed from Colmar Cathedral, in Alsace in eastern France, to prevent the tower from toppling over.
The nest's walls included 17 ladies' black stockings, five fur caps, three shoes, a sleeve from a white silk blouse, a large piece of leather and four buttons from the uniform of a railway porter! When a specimen was first exhibited in London in the 19th century, many people thought it was a hoax owing to its seemingly random collection of features! It also eats seeds, eggs and invertebrates.
Strongest bird g izzard The gizzard is the portion of a bird's stomach that grinds food into small pieces. The world's strongest recorded gizzard is that of the turkey Meleagris gallopavo.
One specimen had crushed 24 walnuts in their shells within four hours, and had also ground surgical lancet blades into grit within 16 hours. Most legs Despite their names, centipedes d o not have legs and millipedes do not have 1, Normally, millipedes only have about pairs of legs, although a millipede called lllacme plenipes, first discovered in California, USA, inhad pairs legs living in Massachusetts - who revealed that his now-famous two-faced cat was still alive and in good health, and i n September celebrated his 12th b irthday!
Normally, Janus cats rarely survive more than a day or so following their birth. Since his first appearance in GWR last year, Frank and Louie has become an unli kely media star, appearing in countless newspaper reports and online news videos throughout the world.
A Janus cat is a domestic cat possessing two near-separate faces as a result of a very rare congenital condition known as diprosopia. Dinosaur with the most teeth Largest horned toad The horned lizards of North America, popularly dubbed "horned toads", are named after the horns on their head - which are true horns, having a bony core.
The largest species is the giant or long-spined horned lizard Phrynosoma asiowhich has a total length of up to 20 em 7. It lives in desert regions along southern Mexico's Pacific coast.
Edmontosaurus, a hadrosaur d uck-billed dinosaur that lived in the late Cretaceous Period, million years ago, had more than a thousand teeth. The land mammal with the most teeth is the giant armadillo Priodontes maximus of South America, which typically has up to teeth. The numbat or marsupial anteater Myrmecobius fasciatus of Western Australia is the marsupial with the most teeth - up to 52, including a unique cheek tooth sited between the premolars and the molars.
Largest teeth used for eating The largest teeth employed for eating as opposed to tusks used for defence purposes belonged to Livyatan melvillei - a prehistoric species of sperm whale that lived around 12 million years ago during the Miocene Epoch. Its teeth were up to 36 em 1 ft 2 in long. GWR brushes up on the longest teeth I n the animal world, from the prehistoric past to the present: African elephant Loxodonta africana Longest elephant tusks relative to body Anancus was a prehistoric gomphothere an extinct fam i ly of elephantine mammals that lived from the late Miocene Epoch to the early Pleistocene Epoch, Longest prehistoric tusks The straight-tusked elephant Hesperoloxodon antiques germanicuswhich lived about 2 million years ago, had an average tusk length in adults of 5 m 16 ft 4.
The right tusk measures 3. One is 4. The heaviest tusks non-prehistoricare a pair of African elephant tusks in the Natural History Museum, London, UK, from a bull shot Longest beetle with enlarged jaws Almost a third of the length o f the male giant sawyer beetle Macrodontia cervicornis is accounted for by its huge jaws. The longest specimen on record was They weigh kg lb and kg lb - giving a total weight of kg lb. Longest horns on a sheep Ewes and rams of the Jacob sheep breed - a rare "polycerate" multi-horned sheep - typically grow two or four horns, but six is not uncommon.
Of sheep that have four horns, one pair usually grows vertically, often to more than 60 em 2 ftwhile the other pair curls around the side of the head. The longest sheep horn measured em 6 ft 3 in and belonged to a Marco Polo sheep Ovis ammon polii. The species is indigenous only to Most horns on a sheep Most horns on a giraffe A giraffe usually has three "ossicones" horn-like projections under the skin : a pair on top of its head and a single one at the centre of its brow.
A Rothschild's giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis rothschildi discovered in 1 in Uganda, however, boasted five ossicones. Larger than present-day New World jaguars, this apex predator existed about 1.
Highest-altitude big cat specimen The famous frozen carcass of a leopard Panthera pardus discovered in at the rim of Mount Kilimanjaro's Kibo Crater in Tanzania, at a height of 5, m 18, ftis the highest-found true big cat specimen. Largest population of white tigers Largest cat not classed as a "true" big cat There are five species of "true" big cats all from the Panthera genus - the lion, tiger, leopard, jaguar and snow leopard.
The puma Puma concolor - also known as the cougar, mountain lion, catamount and painter - is the largest cat species apart from the true cats only the lion, tiger and jaguar are bigger. The puma also has the greatest north-south range for a big cat.
Flexible spine allows limbs to sinuses increase air intake Nandankanan Zoo, in the state of Orissa, India, is home to the world's largest population of white tigers, with at least 34 specimens. This zoo has bred many white tigers, and has sent them to zoos all over the world. Smallest big cat The world's smallest species of "true" big cat is the snow leopard Panthera uncia. Native to the mountain ranges of central and south Asia, this rare and highly elusive species has a head and body length of 0.
It generally weighs around kg lbalthough an extra-large male can weigh 75 kg 1 65 lb. The big cat with least genetic diversity is the cheetah Acinonyxjubatus. Studies conducted in the s using two different populations of South African cheetah revealed that the cheetah not only exhibits less genetic diversity Fastest mammal on land than any other species of cat but also less than almost any other species of large mammal.
Newest big cat The newest species of big cat is the Bornean clouded leopard Neofelis diardi. In the past, the Somali leopard was deemed the smallest leopard, but it is no longer recognized as a separate subspecies. The clouded leopard Neofelis nebulosa native to Asia - is a different species from the leopard. An adult weighs about kg lb. The liger is the largest hybrid of the cat family, typically growing larger than both parents and reaching lengths of Rarest tiger hybrids Inat Southam Zoo in Warwickshire, UK, a cub was born to a tigress that had mated with a black, or melanistic, leopard commonly known as a black panther.
The media dubbed the cub a "pantig", although strictly it is a "leoger". Jaguar Panthera onca 2. It was named M ickey. He lived in the U K until his death on 16 Januaryaged The gestation period of a lion Panthera leo varies between and days, with an average of days. Close behind is the tiger P. The Asian elephant Elephas maximus has the longest gestation period for a mammal, taking an average of days to give birth. There are an estimated 1. Largest dairy goat population The greatest population of dairy goats in the world is found in China's Fuping County, which contains approximatelyindividuals.
By comparison, there are arounddairy goats in the whole of the USA. Almost all of Fuping's dairy goats are Saanen goats, a large, all-white breed named after Switzerland's Saanen Valley.
Greatest milk-yielding goat breed The breed of domestic goat Capra hircus that yields the greatest amount of milk is the Saanen goat, the largest of the dairy goat breeds. A Saanen nanny produces an average daily milk yield of 3. Goat breed with the shortest ears First bred in Oregon, USA, the breed of goat with the shortest ears is the La Mancha, of which there are two types in terms of ear size. The ear lobes of those with so-called "gopher" ears are either non-existent or measure no more than 2.
As neither has normal outer ear lobes, on first sight LaMancha goats often appear earless. Least dense goat coat The breed of domestic goat with the least dense coat is the angora goat, from which mohair is derived. Other breeds of goat produce a double coat, consisting of coarse outer hair and softer under-down, but the angora goat's coat normally lacks any coarse outer hair, consisting only of a very fine, fleecy under-down. It also oversees sanctuaries, foster homes and Shortest horse Charly, a male five-year-old sorrel pony born inmeasures just He can be a bit qtld-tempered, but is affectionate towards his owner, Bartolomeo Messina Italywho has trained Charly to take part in equine exhibition shows.
Most widely used ani mal fibre Wool from the domestic sheep Ovis aries is the most widely used natural fibre derived from animals. It is utilized throughout the inhabited world wherever sheep are farmed.
There are just over a billion domestic sheep individuals currently in existence worldwide. Belgian draught horses are known for their athleticism rather than their bulk.
Its average height from the ground to a hump near its shoulders a feature of certain cattle breeds for the cow is em in and em in for the bull.
We rely on farms for o u r basic food staples. In alone, the world's farmers produced the following jaw-dropping amounts of food and drink. It all adds up to more than 13 quadrillion calories! Largest sheep population Hairiest domestic pig The domestic pig Sus scrofa with the most hair is the Mangalitza.
Uniquely among living breeds of pigs, the Mangalitza grows a remarkably long coat that resembles the fleece of sheep. Mangalitzas originated in Hungary. The country with the world's greatest domestic sheep population is China, which has more than million sheep.
Most of these belong to the fat-tailed breed. Australia is in second place, with around 79 million sheep. They grow up to 76 em 30 in and weigh up to kg lb. Mammoth Jackstocks were bred by US president George Washington, who strongly advocated the use of large mules for farm work instead of horses.
Canine rat catcher During the early s, an kg lb "bull and terrier" dog named Billy dispatched 4, rats in 17 hours. Gui nea pig A guinea pig appropriately named Flash took 8. Skateboarding dog Tillman, an English bulldog, covered a m ft stretch of car park on a skateboard in Champion Mach Blazer, owned by Elaine Havens USAwove between 12 poles in a remarkable 1.
The fastest time for a dog to weave between 24 poles is 5. Tortoise A tortoise named Charlie covered a 5. The course had a gradient of A kelpie named Abbie Girl surfed a Kelpies are an Australian dog breed. They herd sheep, occasionally jumping on the backs of stubborn individuals to steer them while balancing on top - exactly the same balancing skills needed for surfing!
Dog leap and scramble The canine h igh-jump record for a leap and scramble over a smooth wooden wall without ribs or other aids is 3. Guinea pig When it comes to high jumps, one guinea pig soars above the rest. Patch, owned by Philippa Sale UK and her family, cleared 22 em 8. As you'll see, humans just can't compete when racing against the animal kingdom The track is approximately m ft long and features hurdles and hairpin bends.
Each competitor carries a jockey - although in the case of sheep racing, the jockeys are cuddly toys. Horse Unbroken now for more than 60 years, the Federation Equestre lnternationale record for a high jump by a horse outdoors is 2.
The highest indoor jump by a horse measured 2. Mokumoku Tedsukuri Farm in M ie, Japan. He was trained by Makoto leki Japan. The highest rabbit jump is Pig Frog An month-old pot-bellied pig' named Kotetsu performed a cm The j u m p was made by most slam dunks by a parrot in one minute Who's a pretty smart boy, then?
Kangaroo The greatest confirmed long-jump by a kangaroo occurred during a chase in New South Wales, Australia, in Januarywhen a female red kangaroo made a series of bounds, including one measuring The strongest animals, relative to body size, are the Scarabaeidae beetles.
Larger members of this family support up to times their own body weight - the human equivalent of the average man lifting 10 fully g rown African elephants! Guinness World Records' founding editor, Norris McWhirter, once stated: "No single subject is more obscured by vanity, deceit, falsehood and deliberate fraud than the extremes of human longevity.
N o authenticated account can be found of someone livi ng beyond years - and only one person ever reached this extreme age. But is this the absolute limit to life? Here, GWR gerontologist Robert Young expla ins the limiting factors of longevity and makes his prediction for the oldest possible age How long will you live? The table below reveals the odds of l ife. On the left, we look at the likelihood of you, the reader, reach ing a given age. On the right is the likelihood that anyone in history ever lived to a given age.
Those who live longer tend to " look young" as the effects of aging u nfold at a slower rate than normal. Skin: I n our youth, the skin is full of moisture a n d very elastic; retain that youthful look by using moistu rizers and avoiding the sun.
I Calculations are based on current world life expectancy and assuming that annual mortality above is. Smell: We tend to lose o u r sense of s m e l l as we age, and our taste buds become increasingly du lled.
Oldest man euer Bones: A! A d i et rich in Vita m i n D and calcium will slow this process. I"""H"" ID. Avoid smoking, and take reg ular exercise. The chart below details the chances of survival of supercentenarians those over years.
It reveals that the longevity of Jeanne Calment. Supporting documentation is then required to place a claimant at given key points in their life - so, national service papers, census reports, marriage certificates, medical reports and so on. Note: passports only really provide confirmation of nationality, not proof of age. Proof of age Hair: Greying occurs as pigment cells i n t h e hair follicles die off.
When the follicles themselves atrophy waste away. Hormonal differences between men and women result in differing patterns of baldness between the sexes. Nervous system: Reaction times slow as signals take Longer to pass from the nerves to the m uscles.
A diet low in fat and calories, and high i n fresh fruit and vegetables, will help, as will regular, moderate exercise, a stimulated mind and a positive attitude to life. But you m ust also be capable of avoiding or managing disease and disability and avoiding debilitating falls. Sight: The Lenses in our eyes slowly Lose their abi lity to "accommodate" - i.
As the focal Length shortens, glasses are needed for read i ng. The pupils also shrink and Tsuzuku (2006) - Ono Ryoko* - Solo And Duo (2004-2007) (CDr) becomes difficult to see i n Lower Light. An i ncreasing n um ber of humans and the effects of better healthcare across a lifetime mean that we can and should expect humans to live longer in the future - and that a year lifespan is possible.
VI 0 '" 0 The star's 29th studio release featured eight new recordings, along with four songs that had appeared on earlier albums. Author to have a fi rst book published Oldest liuing man Jiroemon Kimura Japan was born on 1 9 April and celebrated his th birthday in Seen here with GWR's Frank Foley, he is the only man verifiably born in the 19th century who is still alive today. As of 23 March they were years 11 months 1 day old. As of 16 Aprilthe highest aggregate age for two siblings was years 3 months 27 days for sisters Marjorie Phyllis Ruddle b.
Acrobatic salsa dancer female Bertha Wood's UK, b. Act to release a new album Australian artist Smoky Dawson released a new album of original songs, Homestead of My Dreams, at the age of 92 years 4 months 14 days. The album went on sale on 22 August Film director Manoel de Oliveira Portugal, b. He has been a lifeguard since Over a recording career stretching back toKing has won an impressive 16 Gram my Awards, including a Lifetime Achievement Award in Patient Jeanne Calment France, - the oldest person ever - was aged years 11 months when she underwent a hip operation in January You'll notice that your chances of living to a very ripe old age are greatly increased if you happen to be a woman The oldest female newspaper delivery person, Joyce Pugh UK, b.
She was 80 years 6 months 3 days old as of 13 March He retired in Januaryon h is rd birthday. Person to complete a marathon Dimitrion Yordanidis Greece completed a km mile marathon in Athens, Greece, on 10 Octoberaged Oldest gym nast Johanna Quaas Germany, b. She performed a floor-and-beam routine on the set of Lo Show dei Record in Rome, Italy, in April and can still perform cartwheels at the age of 86!
Jiroemon Kimura Japan born: 19 Aprll age: years 13 days 4. Misawo Okawa Japan born: 5 March age: years 58 days S. Kame Nakamura Japan born: 8 March age: years 55 days He finished in 7 hr 33 min.
Burrill completed the race in 9 hr 53 min 16 sec. Sylvia Brett U K was 80 years 5 months 13 days old when she parachuted over Cranfield in Bedfordshire, UK, on 23 Augustmaking her the oldest woman to make a solo parachute jump.
Marie-Therese Bardet France born: 2 June age: years days 7. Hatsue Ono Japan born: 31 October age: years days 9. Maria Redaelli- Supercentenarians As of 11 Maythere were 71 people over the age of As remarkable as this new delivery was, it pales when compared with the heaviest birth of all time: on 19 JanuaryAnna Bates Canada, pictured below right - who measured 2.
Twins The world's heaviest twins, with a combined weight of Triplets The heaviest triplets ever weighed Quadruplets irls and two boys, with a total weight of Quintuplets There have been two recorded cases of quintuplets with a combined birth weight of Birth The lowest confirmed birth weight for a surviving infant is g 9.
Twins The lowest combined birth weight recorded for a surviving set of twins is g 1 lb The twins were born by Caesarean section or -sectiona procedure whereby an incision is made in the mother's abdomen, through which the baby is delivered. Triplets With a combined weight of 1, g 3 lb 0. Prolific mother The wife of Russian peasant Feodor Vassilyev bore a total of 69 children. In 27 pregnancies from toshe had 16 pairs of twins the most sets of twins bornseven sets of triplets and four sets of quadruplets the most sets of quadruplets born.
See far right for more information. The most sets of triplets born to one mother is 15, by Maddalena Granata Italy, b.
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