Highest ranking debut. Gains in performance. After The Fire. Abbey Road. Hollywood's Bleeding. The Act. Black Anima. Two Hands. That's Crazy.
Look Up Child. Cuz I Love You. Fear Inoculum. Cry Pretty. Ode To Joy. Greatest Hits. Heartache Medication. AI YoungBoy 2. The Root Of All Evil. Giants Of All Sizes. Almost Daylight. K Soundtrack. Closer Than Together. For The Girls. The Owl. Legend: The Best Of Norman Fucking Rockwell! Dont Smile At Me. Bohemian Rhapsody Soundtrack. Burn The Ships. Live Free. Madame X. Chronicle The 20 Greatest Hits. They are made of solid heirloom woods -- no MDF, no ply -- just beautiful solid wood. The Blade design keeps them from interfering with the sound of the loudspeaker.
Berlin R must be totally alien technology. I don't exactly understand how the tweeter and woofer can use the horn at the same time but much air comes out of horn from woofer and there is a tweeter in the horn too. I have no way to explain how a stand mounting loudspeaker can play in such big scale.
I have before large focal speakers also tower speaker from company Dynaudio also too many others. Berlin R is much bigger sounding better deep bass and so much more dynamic and play louder than either focal or Dynaudio also much more open sound with lifelike detail and imaging makes speakers completely disappear while filling room with concert of sound.
Great meeting you on Saturday [at T. Show at Newport]. Your room had the friendliest, unpretentious vibe. Of course sound is what most matters but I like to support good people. I feel like I'm making out great on both aspects. I honestly believe my modest setup at home with the Berlin Rs was better than anything I heard at the show.
I think they may leave my other setups behind a bit Their alleged unnaturalness gave rise to a widespread euphoria, their development considered a triumph of humans over nature. At the end of World War IEdwin Slosson, a journalist and director of the Science News Service, portrayed plastics chemists as agents of applied democracy. Rare and expensive materials, such as ebony and precious metals, which formerly had been "confined to the selfish enjoyment of the rich," were now "within the reach of every one" thanks to the imitative qualities of plastics.
For Slosson "a state of democratic luxury" based on synthetic chemistry was at hand Slossonp. Fulfilling the ancient alchemists dream of transforming dirt into gold, chemists would gradually "substitute for the natural world an artificial world, molded nearer to its heart's desire" Meiklep.
Near the beginning of World War IIthe applied chemists Victor Emmanuel Yarsley and Edward Gordon Couzens announced The Expanding Age of Plastics that would created a world brighter and clear than any previously known, "a world free from moth and rust and full of color" Yarsley and Couzensp. In such a world, Plastic Man would live in an abundance of safe, hygenic, strong, soft, and light objects, "a world in which man, like a magician makes what he wants for almost every need, out of what is beneath him and around him: coal, water, and air" Yarsley and Couzensp.
Indeed, because of scarcities in traditional raw materials during World War II, war production of plastic or synthetic substitutes laid the base for postwar mass utilization. But during the war the best plastics were reserved for the military and consumer plastics were often of inferior quality. As historian Meikle notes, U. Initial enthusiasm turned into ambivalence, as plastics came to connote inferior substitutes for real materials. When the war ended, the people felt free to demand genuine not artificial materials.
Yet postwar plastics were a booming business. Already inthe average American used 3. Between andworld production grew by an average 16 percent annually. Compared to other materials, plastics were the most expansive sector in many economies. At the same time, a growing call for "real," natural materials emerged.
The quality of artificialness and unnaturalness now had become the essence of plastics supposed flaw. Plastics started to symbolize a fake, cheap, materialist world that would lead to human alienation, cultural decay, and loss of control over technology. An early sign of this kind of discomfort was expressed by the young biologist and journalist Rachel Carson the future author of Silent Spring  in a women's magazine in "The witchery the chemist performs, turns them first into something unearthly, that gives you the creeps.
You feel, when you go into a chemical plant where plastics are made, that maybe man has something quite unruly by the tail" Carsonp. Roland Barthesthe French literary critic, voiced a similar distrust after he saw a large exposition on plastics in Paris. After his visit, Barthes feared that the whole world would become plasticized, even life. But meanwhile Barthes supposed that living materials would not be imitated adequately.
Plastics would remain inferior to natural materials, he declared, ignorant of the high-quality biomedical materials that would follow. Although science, technology, and industry worked to overcome the inferior qualities of consumer plastics—and were remarkably successful in doing so—the nadir in public image was yet to come.
This occurred in the s and s as environmental concerns turned plastics, along with nuclear radiation, into central emblems of self-destructiveness in high-tech society. According to novelist Norman Mailerfor instance, plastics were spreading through the country "like the metastases of cancer cells" Meiklep. In this climate most viewers of the film The Graduate immediately recognized its praise of plastics as a cynical joke, as a metaphor for the phony, banal and materialist world the protagonist has entered.
The unsolicited career advice given to the new college graduate Benjamin Braddock played by Dustin Hoffman is simple: "Plastics. There is a great future in plastics. An early spokesman of the plastics waste problem was the American biologist and environmentalist Barry Commoner.
According to Commoner, the strength of plastics was also their essential flaw, an inability to degrade when discarded as waste: Only "human beings are uniquely capable of producing materials not found in nature [such as] is synthetic plastic, which unlike natural materials is not degraded by biological decay. It therefore persists as rubbish or is burned—in both cases causing pollution" Commonerp. Not being biodegradable had lost its meaning of triumph over nature; on the contrary, it made that plastics were perceived as a permanent threat to nature, and the durability of plastic became a permanent threat to nature.
Then in the s and s, the public response to plastics shifted again. The issues of acid rain and greenhouse gases replaced the emblematic status of plastics as a source of environmental problems Hajer Instead of condemning all plastics wholesale, even strict environmentalists began to distinguish different types associated with different degrees of environmental burden.
Several organizational and technical strategies emerged to cope with plastics waste—from recycling to decomposing polymer materials into oil-like products and the development of biopolymers that degraded in sunlight. The plastics waste problem was not solved, but with technological and organizational fixes it became manageable. How can one account for the fierce and contradictory emotions and changes in perception about plastics during the last century? They cannot be explained by the improving qualities of the material.
Neither can they be explained by the dimension of plastics waste risks in comparison with other environmental risks. Explaining the whimsical pattern of public fascination and disgust about plastics by appealing to the emotional approach of the public—as chemists and spokespersons of the plastics industry were apt to do in reaction to environmental criticism—is unsatisfactory as well.
A richer understanding calls for taking into account fundamental, cultural assumptions toward new technologies. Technologies must be appropriated in order to make them fit into people's lives and practices. During the appropriation process both technologies and existing social orders often have to shift and adjust to one another.
Plastics are ambiguous substances that did not always fit into existing cultural, symbolic categories. Under such circumstances erratic reactions are common. In her pioneering work on impurity ideas in traditional societies, the British anthropologist Mary Douglas has described how border-crossing phenomena that do not fit into the cultural orders cause extreme reactions both of fascination and fear. Such a dual reaction is especially strong when something fits into two categories that were previously considered to be mutually exclusive such as the human and animal, organism and machine, or nature and culture.
The Nuer Tribe in Africa, for example experienced malformed babies as ambivalent beings, crossing the border between man and animal.
Therefore they were treated as hippopotamus babies and put across the river. In the case of plastics, it is the nature—culture dichotomy that is decisive for its experienced ambivalence.
From the beginning, plastics were unlike natural raw materials, because they were artificially synthesized and therefore products of culture. This led to the interpretation of plastics as a miracle. Then in the climate of increasing environmental concern the nondegradability of plastics turned the miracle into monster.
The coping strategies can be understood as attempts to put plastics in an acceptable cultural category. Product recycling brings the waste back into culture, while biodegradation makes nature out of it again. Although the waste problem is not solved, plastics have been culturally domesticated. They have become ethically accepted. Barthes, Roland. Mythologies, trans.
Annette Lavers. New York : Hill and Wang. Commoner, Barry. New York : Knopf. Douglas, Mary. London: Routledge. Hajer, Maarten A. Meikle, Jeffrey L. American Plastic: A Cultural History. Mossman, Susan, ed. Early Plastics, Perspectives — Paperback edition from New York: Continuum Smits, Martijntje.
Amsterdam: Boom. Sparke, Penny, ed. London: Victoria and Albert Museum. Woodstock, NY: Overlook Press Yarsley, Victor Emmanuel, and Edward G. It is derived from the Greek word plastikos, meaning a shaped or molded substance. The term "plastics" first included only natural polymers — usually animal proteins horn and tortoise shelltree resins, or insect secretions called shellac — that were subsequently mixed with fillers such as wood flour to yield substances having better molding properties.
A polymer, from the Greek word poly, meaning "many," and mer meaning "unit," is a molecule with an extremely high molecular weight. The use of natural polymers to make plastic products started as early as What You Do (Solid State Mix) - Various - Hi-Fidelity House: Imprint 3 (Vinyl), when Enoch Noyes opened a business making combs out of keratin and albuminoid organic proteins derived from animal horns and horse hoofs.
However, the first commercially successful plastic material, celluloid, would not come about for another hundred years.
Cellulose nitrate is a highly flammable doughlike substance primarily used in the manufacture of explosives. Cellulose nitrate's properties as a molding substance interested other scientists of the time, and in an Englishman named Alexander Parkes developed a form of cellulose nitrate he named Parkesine.
From this material, Parkes manufactured a number of buttons, pens, medallions, and combs. In he displayed this material officially at the Great International Exhibit in London.
Parkes made small commercial gains with Parkesine and eventually sold the rights to Daniel Spill, who subsequently began production of the substance under the names Xylonite and Ivoride, around Spill received British patents for Xylonite and Ivoride in andrespectively. John Wesley Hyatt developed collodion, a mixture of cellulose nitrate and alcohol.
Like cellulose nitrate, collodion was highly flammable and would produce a small explosion upon agitation. Hyatt reported: "[W]e had a letter from a billiard saloon proprietor in Colorado mentioning this fact … saying he did not care so much about it, but that instantly every man in the room pulled a gun.
The influence of Herman Mark, the so-called father of polymer science, on the plastics industry still echoes today in a legacy of education and research.
His work in the s on the structure of cellulose opened the door for the development of synthetic fibers such as acrylic, nylon, polyester, polystyrene, and PVC. A more common perception of plastic is that it is a synthetic or man-made material, with highly engineered properties and product designs. Leo Baekeland engineered the first totally synthetic plastic in Patented in and named Bakelite after its inventor, the material was the first thermoset plastic.
The term "thermoset" refers to a plastic that under initial heat and pressure can be molded into form. After cooling, the material sets and cannot be remelted or re-formed. This setting is due to the cross-linking of polymer chains, wherein strong covalent bonds form between separate oligomers, short chains of polymer units called monomers. The most common thermoset resin is vulcanized rubber, created by Charles Goodyear in the United States in Vulcanized rubber utilizes natural hevea rubber made from the gutta percha tree, and therefore is not totally synthetic like Bakelite.
Ironically, the first use of Bakelite was as a replacement for natural rubber in electrical insulations. Bakelite is formed via the reaction of phenol and formaldehyde under high heat. Initially, formaldehyde is added to the reaction mixture in small amounts forming a resin ; the mixture is then poured into a mold, into which more formaldehyde is added; and pressure is applied to create the final product.
Over the next several decades, many varieties of synthetic thermoplastic materials would be developed in GermanyEnglandand the United States. Thermoplastic materials such as vinyls, nylons, and acrylics are polymers that can be molded or formed under heat and pressure, and if necessary can be reheated and re-formed and will retain most of their original mechanical properties.
Eugen Baumann created today's most common vinyl, polyvinyl chloride PVCin However, Friedrich Heinrich August Klatte did not patent it until He had been attempting to dehydrohalogenate PVC in a high boiling solvent when he realized that the molten material was exhibiting greater flexibility and elasticity. The exposure of PVC to a boiling solvent introduced a plasticizer, or low molecular weight molecule, to the PVC matrix. Today plasticizers are commonly added to polymers especially PVC to enhance flexibility, prevent stress cracking, and enhance processability.
This has enabled the use of PVC in diverse commercial applications, including the manufacture of rigid tubing and flexible car seats. In German scientist Hermann Staudinger published his theories on polyaddition polymerization, the formation of long-chain molecules. Previously, the manner in which long-chain molecules were formed was unexplained. Nine years later, in a publication that detailed the polymerization of styrene, this method of chain formation would be laid out.
During this time period Staudinger developed polystyrene into a commercial product. The Dow Chemical Company introduced the American public to polystyrene in In directors at E. Wallace H. Carothers in charge of fundamental research into what are now classic studies on the formation of polymer chains. During his years at Du Pont, Carothers published his theory on polycondensation, and discovered both neoprene and nylon.
Nylon, not publicly announced untilwas first used for bristles on combs, but made headlines in when nylon stockings debuted at the World's Fair in New York City. Nylon is known by its chemical name, poly hexamethylene adipamide, but more often simply as nylon.
The first nylon manufacturing plant went into production at Seaford, Delawarein Commercial production of nylon 6 by IG Farben in Germany began in These two plants would go on to produce millions of pounds of nylon annually. This mass production was essential to the World War II effort, as nylon was used for everything from belts, ropes, and straps to tents and parachutes.
Roy J. They had What You Do (Solid State Mix) - Various - Hi-Fidelity House: Imprint 3 (Vinyl) conducting research on alternate refrigeration methods when they discovered the polymerization of tetrafluoroethylene. Plunkett received a patent for PTFE in It was found that the material was resistant to corrosion by all the solvents, acids, and bases that were available for testing at that time.
This led to the U. It was not until the material was declassified in that the public learned of the material Du Pont had named Teflon two years earlier. Teflon has since become a household name; its best-known use being its contribution to nonstick surfaces on pots and pans. Today's most widely produced and perhaps most versatile plastic, polyethylene, was discovered at the Imperial Chemical Industries ICI in England in Fawcett and R. Gibson set off a reaction between ethylene and benzaldehyde under 2, atmospheres of pressure, resulting in the polymerization of What You Do (Solid State Mix) - Various - Hi-Fidelity House: Imprint 3 (Vinyl) and the birth of polyethylene.
ByICI had developed a larger volume compressor that made the production of useful quantities of polyethylene possible. Among polyethylene's first applications were its uses as underwater cable coatings and as insulation for radar during World War II. InKarl Ziegler began work that would drastically alter the production of polyethylene.
Ziegler used organometallic compounds, which have both metallic and organic components, as catalysts. At very modest pressures, these catalysts generated a linear, more rigid, high molecular weight polyethylene, and the innovation increased the number of the polymer's applications.
Today polyethylene is used in the production of detergent bottles and children's toys, and is even replacing Kevlar as a bulletproof material. Inat the Montecatini Laboratories in Italy, Giulio Natta continued the work of Ziegler and used what is now termed Ziegler — Natta polymerization to create polypropylene.
When Natta reported the polymerization of ethylene with a titanocene catalyst, it became clear that polymer chains with specific tacticities, or specific ordered structures, were possible. Polypropylene rose to become a substitute for polyethylene in products in which slightly higher temperature stability was necessary, for example, dishwasher-safe cups and plates.
Polycarbonate, a popular plastic used originally to make eyeglass lenses, was first discovered by A. Einhorn in But it would be more than fifty years before further research was performed on the material. In the s Dr. Schnell and Fox each achieved a polymerization that produced polycarbonate via different methods, and received patents in andrespectively. Upon his achievement of polymerization, Fox described his attempts to remove the newly formed polymer from the reaction vessel: "The remnants of the glass were broken away to yield a hemispherical, glass fragment embedded, glob of plastic on the end of a steel stirrer shaft.
The pseudo plastic mallet was even used to drive nails into wood. Means to improve the material properties of plastics have been sought for decades. Improvement has sometimes come in the form of compounds such as mineral fillers, antioxidants, and flame-retardants.
One of the first searches for an improved material was centered on cellulose nitrate. Cellulose nitrate is colorless and transparent, which enabled it to be used as photographic film.
However, it is extremely flammable, and its early use in motion picture film and concomitant exposure to hot lights led to numerous fires. InHenri Dreyfus substituted acetic acid for nitric acid in the synthesis of cellulose nitrate, and created instead a less flammable material, cellulose acetate. Today, polymers are often halogenated in order to achieve flame-retardation.
Plastics have been designed to be chemically resistant, stable compounds, and have been extremely successful in these regards. In fact, they have been so successful that an environmental problem has been created. Plastic products discarded in landfills decay slowly. They sometimes contain heavy metal additives. In addition, the millions of pounds of plastic discarded annually have engendered a crisis over landfill space.
In the early s plastic recycling programs began to spring up across the United States in response to the large number of polyethylene terephthalate PET or PETE bottles being discarded. Inmillion pounds of PET bottles were recycled. The number rose to 1. Most plastics can be recycled.
Even mixed plastic waste can be recycled into artificial lumber or particleboard. Plastic "wood" is easy to saw, and it has better resistance to adverse weather and insects than real wood.
DiNoto, Andrea Art Plastic Designed for Living. New York : Abbeville Press. Morawetz, Herbert Polymers: The Origins and Growth of a Science. New York: John Wiley. Seymour, Raymond B. New York: Elsevier Science. Koch, Paul E. The term plastic refers to any material that can be shaped or molded. In this sense, ordinary clay or a soft wax is a plastic material. Perhaps more commonly, plastic has become the term used to describe a class of synthetic materials more accurately known in chemistry as polymers.
Some common examples of plastics are the polyethylenes, polystyrenes, vinyl polymers, methyl methacrylates, and polyesters. These synthetic materials may or may not be "plastic" in the pliable sense. Research on plastic-like materials began in the mid-nineteenth century. At first, this research made use of natural materials. Credit for discovery of the first synthetic plastic is often given to the American inventor, John Wesley Hyatt. InHyatt was awarded a patent for the manufacture of a hard, tough material made out a natural cellulose.
He called the product "celluloid. It was not untilhowever, that an entirely synthetic plastic was invented. In that year, the Belgian-American chemist Leo Baekeland discovered a new compound that was hard, water- and solvent-resistant and electrically non-conductive. He named the product Bakelite. Almost immediately, the new material was put to use in the manufacture of buttons, radio cases, telephone equipment, knife handles, counter tops, cameras, and dozens of other products.
Today, thousands of different plastics are known. Their importance is illustrated by the fact that of the 50 chemicals produced in the greatest volume in the United States24 are used in the production of polymers. Products that were unknown until the s are now manufactured by the millions of tons each year in the United States. Despite the bewildering variety of plastics now available, most can be classified in one of a small number of ways. First, all plastics can be categorized as thermoplastic or thermosetting.
A thermoplastic polymer is one that, after being formed, can be re-heated and re-shaped. If you warm the handle of a toothbrush in a flame, for example, you can bend it into another shape. A thermosetting polymer is different, however, since, once formed, it can be re-heated, but not re-shaped.
Polymers can also be classified according to the chemical reaction by which they are formed. Addition polymers are formed when one kind of molecule reacts with a second molecule of the same kind.
This type of reaction can occur only when the molecules involved contain a special grouping of atoms containing double or triple bonds. As an example one molecule of ethylene can react with a second molecule of ethylene. This reaction can continue, with a third ethylene molecule adding to the product. In fact, this reaction can be repeated many times until a very large molecule, polyethylene, results.
The prefix poly -means "many" indicating that many molecules of ethylene were used in its production. In the formation of a polymer like polyethylene, "many" can be equal to a few hundred or few thousand ethylene molecules. The basic unit of which the polymer is made ethylene, in this case is called the monomer. The process by which monomers combine with each other many times is known as polymerization. A second type of polymer, the condensation polymer, is formed when two different molecules combine with each other through the loss of some small molecule, most commonly, water.
For example, Baekeland's original Bakelite is made by the reaction between a molecule of phenol and a molecule of formaldehyde. As with the formation of polyethylene, this reaction can repeat hundreds or thousands of times to make a very large molecule.
The names of polymers often reveal how they are made. For example, polyethylene is made by the polymerization of ethylene, polypropylene by the polymerization of propylene, and polyvinyl chloride by the polymerization of vinyl chloride. The names of other polymers give no hint as to the way they are formed.
One would not guess, for example, that nylon is a condensation polymer of adipic acid and hexamethylene diamine or that Teflon is an addition polymer of tetrafluorethylene. Listing all the uses to which plastics have been put is probably impossible. Such a list would include squeeze bottles, electrical insulation, film, indoor-outdoor carpeting, floor tile, garden hoses, pipes for plumbing, trash bags, fabrics, latex paints, adhesives, contact lenses, boat hulls, gaskets, non-stick pan coatings, insulation, dinnerware, and table tops.
Plastics technology has become highly sophisticated in the last few decades. Rarely is a simple polymer used by itself in a product. Instead, all types of additives are available for giving the polymer special properties. Ultraviolet stabilizers, as one example, are added to absorb ultraviolet light that would otherwise attack the polymer itself.
Many polymers become stiff and brittle when exposed to ultraviolet light. Plasticizers are compounds that make a polymer more flexible. Foaming agents are used to convert a polymer to the kind of foam used in insulation or cooler chests. Fillers are materials like clay, alumina, or carbon black that add properties such as color, flame resistancehardness, or chemical resistance to a plastic. Some of the most widely used additives are reinforcing agents.
These are fibers made of carbon, boron, glass, or some other material that add strength to a plastic. Reinforced plastics find application in car bodies and boat hulls and in many kinds of sporting equipment such as football helmets, tennis rackets, and bicycle frames.
One of the most interesting new variations in polymer properties is the development of conducting polymers. Untilthe word plastic was nearly synonymous with electrical non-conductance. In fact, one important use of plastics has been as electrical insulation. Inhowever, a Korean university student accidentally produced a form of polyacetylene that conducts electricity.
For a number of reasons, that discovery did not lead to a commercial product until Then, two researchers at the University of Pennsylvania discovered that adding a small amount of iodine to polyacetylene increases its conductivity a trillion times.
A number of technical problems remain, but the day of plastic batteries is no longer a part of the distant future. Indeed, scientists are now studying dozens of ways in which conduction plastics can be substituted for metals in a variety of applications.
For all their many advantages, plastics have long posed some difficult problems for the environment. Perhaps the most serious of those problems, is their stability. Since plastics have not occurred in nature for very long, microorganisms that can degrade them have not yet had an opportunity to evolve.
Thus, plastic objects that are discarded may tend to remain in the environment for hundreds or thousands of years. Sometimes, this problem translates into one of sheer volume. Infor example That translated into At other times, the stability of plastics is actually life-threatening to various organisms. Stories of aquatic birds who are strangled by plastic beer can holders are no longer news because they occur so often.
The presence of plastics can interfere with some of the methods suggested for dealing with solid wastes. For example, incineration has been recommended as a way of getting rid of wastes and producing energy at the same time. But the combustion of some types of plastics results in the release of toxic hydrochloric acid, hydrogen cyanide, and other hazardous gases.
Scientists are now moving forward in the search for ways of dealing with waste plastic materials. Some success has been achieved, for example in the development of photodegradable plastics, polymers that degrade when exposed to light. One problem with such materials is that they are often buried in landfills and are never exposed to sunlight. Research also continues to progress on the recycling of plastics.
A major problem here is that some kinds of polymers are more easily recycled than others, and separating one type from the other is often difficult to accomplish in everyday practice. The use of plastics is also interconnected with the world's energy problems. In the first place, the manufacture of most plastics is energy intensive. It takes only 24 million Btu to make What You Do (Solid State Mix) - Various - Hi-Fidelity House: Imprint 3 (Vinyl) ton of steel, but 49 million Btu to make one ton of polyvinyl chloride and million Btu to make one ton of low-density polyethylene.
Perhaps even more important is the fact that petroleum provides the raw materials from which the great majority of plastics are made. Thus, as our supplies of petroleum dwindle, as they inevitable will, scientists will have to find new ways to produce plastics. While they will probably be able to meet that challenge, the change-over from an industry based on petroleum to one based on other raw materials is likely to be long, expensive, and disruptive.
Denison, R. New York : Environmental Defense Fund, Selinger, B. Chemistry in the Marketplace. Sydney: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Williams, A. Embree, and H. Introduction to Chemistry. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, Newton, David E.
Paranormally obtained plastics may be divided into two groups: imprints and molds. The first may be produced in any soft, yielding substance or on smoked or chemically treated surfaces; for the second, melted paraffin wax is employed. Johann C. Baron Lazar Hellenbach testified to having seen an impression of a hand larger than Slade's or any other individual present.
None of their hands had any trace of flour. The imprint of a hand with four fingers, the imprint of a bird, two feet, and a materialized butterfly were supposedly obtained during the George Valiantine -Bradley sittings inin England. Charles Sykes, the British sculptor, was unable to give an explanation, What You Do (Solid State Mix) - Various - Hi-Fidelity House: Imprint 3 (Vinyl), as was Noel Jaquin, a fingerprint expert.
Inhowever, the same experts claimed to have caught Valiantine in a fraud. Other imprints were found identical to those of his toes. Eusapia Palladino produced hand and face imprints in putty and clay. Reportedly they bore her characteristics, although she was held at a distance from the tray while the impression was made. Camille Flammarion claimed to be a witness of the process at Monfort-l'Amaury in Supposedly the resemblance of the spirit head to the medium was undeniable, yet seemingly she could not have imprinted her face in the putty.
Besides having been physically controlled, Ms. Blech kissed Palladian on the cheeks, searching for the odor of putty on her face. Julien Ochorowitz wrote of Palladino's mediumship at Rome :.
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